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Production of Hydrogen Energy

Hydrogen is a secondary energy that can be produced in various ways by using primary energy. Typical methods of producing hydrogen include fossil fuel reforming, byproduct hydrogen utilization, and water electrolysis.

Classification According to Production Method

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You can check the Production principle, Advantage, and Limit for the Extraction (Reform), Utilization of By-product Hydrogen (Process Hydrogen) and Water Electrolysis.
Classification Extraction (Reform) Utilization of By-product Hydrogen
(Process Hydrogen)
Water Electrolysis
Extracting hydrogen by reacting fossil fuels such as natural gas (methane), LPG, and lignite with steam at high temperature and high pressure Separating and purifying by-products during the production process of petrochemicals or steel mills Electrolysis of water to produce hydrogen

Extraction : Natural gas, Water, H2(H2), CO2(C02)

Utilization of By-product Hydrogen : Oil,Cokes, Naphtha, Water, H2(H2), Target substance

Water Electrolysis : Renewable energy, Water, H2(H2), CO2(C02)

  • Low production cost
  • Mass production
Low production cost because of no requirement of separate equipment Eco-friendly due to lack of generation of by-products such as carbon dioxide
Limit Large amount of carbon dioxide
  • Limited to further production as a by-product of the process
  • Generation of by-products such as carbon dioxide
Economically infeasible due to high production cost at present

Global Hydrogen Production Method

  • 18%coal gasification
  • 30%Refinery and Chemicals
    Byproduct hydrogen
  • 48~50%natural gas reforming

About 48-50% of the world’s annual hydrogen production of 79 million tons is produced from fossil fuels, e.g., through natural gas reforming, 30% is by-products from oil refining and chemical industries, and 18% is from coal gasification (mainly in China). In the short term, the reforming method will be used, and in the long term, this will be changed to an eco-friendly production method using water electrolysis technology.

Storage and Transportation of Hydrogen Energy

Hydrogen can be stored in a variety of forms, including gaseous, liquid, or compound forms. The mode of transport depends on this mode of storage. It is currently common to compress gaseous hydrogen for storage and transportation, but in the future, pipeline transportation centered on major customers, and liquefied transportation capable of high-density and large-capacity transportation will be used.

How to Store and Transport Hydrogen

※ Source: H₂KOREA, H₂2, Hydrogen-related law: Economy and Safety, Nov. 2019

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You can check the Principle and Feature for the Gas, Liquid and Compound.
Classification Gas Liquid Compound
Principle Gaseous hydrogen is compressed and stored in tanks, and supplied through pipelines or compressed tanks. Hydrogen is cooled to -253°C, liquefied, stored, and transported using tankers or ships. Hydrogen is converted into methane, ammonia (liquid), etc., or stored in a specific metal and transported using tank trucks or ships.

Hydrogen production > Compression 200~450bar > Pipeline, Compression tank transport

Hydrogen production > -253℃ > Transport

Chemical bond (hydrogen + nitrogen) > Transport > Hydrogen separation

  • Convenient to transport by tube trailer and pipeline
  • Strict property requirements for storage containers
  • Pipeline requires high initial investment to build, but is cheapest when demand is secured.
  • Requires a lot of energy to bring hydrogen down to -253°C
  • Mass storage is possible
  • High transport efficiency
  • Eight times higher transport efficiency than gas transport and storage method
  • Can be transported at room temperature and pressure
  • Tanker ships and trucks can be used

Utilization of Hydrogen Energy

Hydrogen energy is used in various fields such as transportation, power generation, and industry. In particular, the transportation field, in particular hydrogen electric vehicles, has the highest potential for hydrogen utilization, and the success of the hydrogen economy depends on this sector. In the case of power generation, fuel cells are attracting attention as a high-efficiency power generation method in that they can simultaneously produce electricity and heat required for industry and households.

Applications of Hydrogen Energy

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You can check the Home Use, Industrial Use, For Transport, and For Special Purpose.
Home Use Industrial Use For Transport For Special Purpose
  • Portable fuel cells
  • Household fuel cells
  • Fuel cells for business
  • Industrial fuel cells
  • Hydrogen electric vehicles, buses, taxis
  • Fuel cell vessels
  • Fuel cell trains
  • Drones
  • Submarines
  • Fork lifts
  • Special vehicles

Home Use

Industrial Use

For Transport

For Special Purpose

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